The point for the current review is not that problems related to reproducibility of animal studies exist, but that dealing with systemic issues such as sample size and blinding can be a major issue for translational studies using NHPs, as it is for rodents. WebAs previously reported by NABR, the New England Anti-Vivisection Society (NEAVS) has drastically increased its FOIA use by hundreds of requests per month. Approximately 2000 animals were transferred, without loss of a single animal; specific pathogen-free animals remained free of viruses. Projects Another example from the field of HIV/AIDS relates to the successful development of antiviral therapy (ART) that has turned HIV infection from one that is invariably fatal to one that can be ameliorated by the use of drugs. . If the three-stage model of human translational research is used as a reference (Rubio et al. Zimmermann, T. Schraeder, B. Reynolds, E.M. DeBoer, K.B. Our mission is to provide an opportunity for the Northern New England Sonographers, not just vascular, but all sonographers a means for continuing medical educational programs and sharing of opportunities for growth. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the National Academy of Sciences. Genomic and exomic sequences of NHPs can now be obtained readily, at moderate, but still significant, cost. Amory died unexpectedly later that same year. Chimpanzees are the only animal model that can be used to test strategies for prevention or amelioration of Hepatis B and C and are the most useful model for Hepatitis A. WebThats why we created the animal protection movements first publicly accessible research and transparency toolthe Animal Research Laboratory Overview (ARLO). Lisa Miller and colleagues review the role of NHP preclinical models for understanding and treating a number of severe respiratory conditions, including damage to the airway associated with inhaled ozone and tobacco smoke, diseases associated with airway inflammation (asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease), and infection with viruses such as influenza virus, respiratory syncytial virus, severe acute respiratory syndrome virus, and others. JCI They point out that NHPs are more similar to humans than are rodents in a number of aspects of energy metabolism, including the major site of de novo lipogenesis (liver vs. adipose tissue), major classes of circulating lipoproteins, and the physiology of thermogenesis and insulin-mediated glucose utilization. These nations have made major efforts to increase the supply of NHPs available to researchers in their domestic institutions and to enhance infrastructure to breed animals and perform large scale investigations, including genomic analysis (see Harding 2017 for selected references) and development of new NHP disease models using Assisted Reproductive Technologies (see, e.g., Chen et al. I will confine this discussion to the United States, although similar considerations also obtain in Europe. Researchers use these animals to learn about the dynamics of diseases, lifestyle or environmental effects on the disease, or treatment methods, and hope that the findings will relate in some way to people. Capaldo and her newly elected board of directors came with extensive animal protection and animal rights experience and have included individuals with medical, veterinary, psychology, mental health, sociology, and legal credentials, such as Sarah Luick, Esq., a founding member of the Animal Legal Defense Fund (ALDF). Neeves. JP They also discuss the relationship between studies that utilize rodents and those that use NHPs, as well as details regarding the relative merits of using rhesus macaques versus cynomolgus macaques. 2023 Nonprofit Metrics LLCTerms of Service and Privacy Policy. With the support of people like you, we save animals from [24], NEAVS' affiliate, the Ethical Science and Education Coalition (ESEC), lobbied and testified before the Massachusetts state legislature in support of a bill that would have given public school students the right to opt out of dissection classes. Underpinning all of these studies is the close similarity in physiology between the NHP and human respiratory systems. ESEC's mission is to "end the harmful use of animals at all levels of science education" by providing resources and services that support alternatives to the use of animals in education, specifically the use of animals in terminal labs, live animal demonstrations, training courses, and dissection. These include models for Huntingtons Disease (Chan 2013), diseases caused by mitochondrial mutations (Takibana et al. American Anti-Vivisection Society 2023. Betsy Ferguson (Oregon NPRC), Robert Norgren (University of Nebraska Medical Center), Jeffrey Rogers (Baylor College of Medicine), and my former NIH colleagues Drs. Supplies of marmosets can be increased rapidly relative to macaques, because of the relatively short generation time of marmosets and the fact that pregnancies usually result in twins rather than singletons. WebBOSTON, MA (December 15, 2011) The National Academy of Sciences Institute of Medicine (IOM) today released results of their nine-month long study, called for by the NIH, to investigate the current and future need for chimpanzees in research. 2016): (1) characterization of gene content and organization of the experimental animal species in comparison to humans, to understand the potential use of an animal model to study a specific human disease or genetic condition; (2) analysis of genetic variation in individual animals to identify potential mutant NHPs that can be developed as models of specific human diseases; (3) development of genome arrays that can be used for mapping studies that identify potential disease genes, or more generally, for identifying Quantitative Trait Loci, genomic regions that contain disease genes (Cox 2013); (4) development of arrays or other assays that can be used to stratify the population of animals to be used as experimental subjects to enhance the accuracy of preclinical studies and to reduce animal numbers needed for translational studies. Chen 2014, reviewed in Harding 2017). TA Recent examples include the influence of the animal rights organizations on the NIH decision to prohibit research using chimpanzees (Reardon 2015, see also commentary in this issue by Veazey and Lackner 2017 and Lanford et al. The New England Anti-Vivisection Society (NEAVS) is a national, registered 501(c)(3) nonprofit organization "dedicated to ending the use of animals in research, testing, and science education" and replacing them with "modern alternatives that are ethically, humanely, and scientifically superior. As this article was being written, the US Food and Drug Administration temporarily suspended research aimed at understanding aspects of nicotine addiction using squirrel monkeys, apparently based on a direct request of the primatologist, Dr. Jane Goodall, to the FDA Commissioner (McGinley 2017). Laboratories sticking painful eye irritants into restrained rabbit's eyes to test an eye product and cats being forced to have brain electrocutions to test for neurological pharmaceutical drugs are just two of hundreds of products tested on animals according to PETA ( 2016). AWS Paper topics include findings of research chimpanzee autopsy reports, the implications of genetic differences between chimpanzees and humans, and the applicability of using chimpanzees as research models for cancer, hepatitis C, and AIDS. The New England Anti-Vivisection Society (NEAVS) is a national, registered 501(c)(3) nonprofit organization "dedicated to ending the use of animals in research, testing, and science education" and replacing them with "modern alternatives that are ethically, 2.6 Protection of chimpanzees from biomedical research; 3 Current campaigns. Currently, AFAAR and NEAVS offer a one-year postdoctoral fellowship grant to fund women researchers who work to develop, validate, or use animal alternatives in investigating women's health or sex differences in research results. , Schlange T, Asadullah K. Reardon Chimpanzees have also been moved by truck from various centers to the Chimp Haven sanctuary within the United States, as mandated by the NIH (Reardon 2015), following a complex review process that involved, among others, the US National Academy of Medicine and the NIH Council of Councils and Directors Office with input from researchers and stakeholders. John D Harding, Nonhuman Primates and Translational Research: Progress, Opportunities, and Challenges, ILAR Journal, Volume 58, Issue 2, 2017, Pages 141150, [46], NEAVS' Common Ground initiative includes two initial campaigns incorporating support for women in science and environmental stewardship with its animals in research mission. Research using all vertebrate animals, including NHPs, and the characteristics of the facilities that house and breed animals are regulated in North America (Griffin and Locke 2016; Tardif et al. Project R&R There are, however, several challenges involved with the application of large-scale genomic sequencing to develop new NHP models for translational medicine. However, although not always attained in practice, NHPs must usually be the animal model that is ultimately employed in the preclinical setting for evaluating efficacy and safety of a pharmaceutical, vaccine, or device prior to human clinical trials. Kris Coleman and Melinda Novak review best practices for environmental enrichment in the husbandry of NHPs. Bonnie Mathieson and Jean Patterson (Office of AIDS Research). I am a psychologist and President of New England Anti-Vivisection Society. Federal legislation introduced in 2015 gained momentum toward ending , Zhang XF, Choi SH, Okahara J, Sasaki E, Silva AC. In these 3 Rs alternative successful approaches to testing consumer products have been created. 2015). Optimal health of animals is also a component of experimental reproducibility. Cornish WebNATIONAL ASSOCIATION FOR BIOMEDICAL RESEARCH reported its two largest programs on its FY 2020 Form 990 as: $802,445 Spent in most recent FY 66% Percent of program , Browne WJ, Cuthill IC, Emerson M, Altman DG. x$jDifws'rC(w[X,NwO]nuYw>|}_"t]}~>?'Y\dZwElOWn7Wfm.RXTfy^.yx\}\..0m`;uY.V|?w>0x\r^8XhlEnVt_-*j&+r{?MnG&/@x\\^lRJ3jDxW.w)]I0sO1\P6S@]'AbW3(9o_Ms'j=:E^43=pe~"%e&D^@%\{tO?h.Gu]YPX0MKm!%y*D[@B\"@&'o/\^E+.tEA{](+}1%hVloPSD,E.j _^=_z E(s5|'soa nA^%S$(LCgz`{` i#i~\Pg9 Project R&R successfully led the charge to end the use of chimpanzees in U.S. biomedical research and testing. [16], In 1985, NEAVS began funding Bjorn Ekwall, PhD, chairman of the Cytotoxicology Laboratory (CTLU) in Sweden,[17] a laboratory which designs and validates alternatives to animal research, to develop an in vitro method of toxicology testing capable of replacing the LD50 test,[18][19] which assesses substance toxicity based on the dose that kills 50% of animals in the test. R MA 333 Washington St Ste 850, Boston, Massachusetts, 02108, United States, Find your B2B customer within minutes using affordable, accurate contact data from Datanyze. Y F In this article Ronald Veasey and the late Andrew Lackner emphasize studies in NHPs that underlay all of these advances: understanding the basic features of pathogenesis of HIV-like viruses (SIVs) using monkeys such as rhesus macaques. The ability of primate centers to quickly respond to relatively sudden increases in demand remains an unsolved problem. Biomedical researchers attempt to answer basic questions about human biology and apply those findings to improve human health. In 1871, Professor Henry Ingersoll Bowditch established the first U.S. vivisection lab at Harvard Medical School, inciting concern from Edward Clement, editor-in-chief of the Boston Evening Transcript, which subsequently ran a series of anti-vivisection editorials. Productive breeding colonies were rapidly reestablished at the recipient NPRCs, suggesting a relative lack of stress on macaques and marmosets caused by movement among centers. There are currently some efforts within the NPRC consortium to identify cohorts of animals with specific phenotypes across centers. Believe it or not: How much can we rely on published data on potential drug targets? Even when a variant animal is identified, there may be no phenotypic assay for the potential disease condition in the NHP. Considering animals as mere research tools, an entire industry has been built around supplying animals to laboratories. KKA ESEC is a proponent of dissection choice legislation and policies which provide students the right to choose alternatives to animal use in their education. As pointed out in the article, several different animal models have been used, and model development remains a very active area of preclinical research. , Ramakrishnan R, Cervera-Juanes R, Madhira R, Peterson SM, Norgren RBJr, Ferguson B. Capitanio In practice, as is clear from the papers in this issue, several different animal models may be used to study a specific problem in translational science. Annual membership to the NNEVS gives you access to CME events, networking opportunities and much more. The USA is the only significant user of chimpanzees in biomedical research in the world, since many . For example, Xue et al. % Address correspondence and reprint requests to Dr. John D. Harding at. M Last month, the National Institutes of Health (NIH) announced in the journal Nature that it will ask grant applicants to use both male and female animals in biomedical (2017) have reported sequencing of several additional rhesus, which can be used to further refine the rhesus genome assembly and allow new inferences about rhesus genome organization and potential for identifying disease genes in captive populations. 4 0 obj They emphasize advantages of NHP preclinical models relative to other animals, particularly rodents. The development of breeding and technology centers in China and Japan is a more recent phenomenon that is impacting translational research (Cyranoski 2014, 2016). Mapping, rather than sequencing per se, has been used successfully to identify Quantitative Trait Loci in baboons that contribute to complex diseases (Cox et al. Cox As discussed by Hewitt et al. WebThe National Association for Biomedical Research (NABR) is an American nonprofit organization, 501 (c) (6), located in Washington, DC. In January of 2017, NNEVS became an independent Non-Profit Vascular Ultrasound Society, no longer affiliated with SVU as a chapter. PJ 2016; Ke et al. , Schoenbaum EE, Lee LS, Schteingart DE, Marantz PR, Anderson KE, Platt LD, Baez A, Esposito K. Sasaki E DG In regard to transportation, a question still remains as to whether some chimpanzees experienced stress that can affect their longevity at the Chimp Haven sanctuary. In 1983 NEAVS successfully lobbied to repeal Massachusetts' 1957 pound seizure law, which required animal shelters to sell animals for use in research. There is no good solution to this problem, which is outside the control of the end users of the animals. These authors also comment on emerging areas in the field of female reproduction, including infection with Zika virus and the potential use of transgenic technologies such as the CRISPR/Cas9 system, to create new disease models relevant to translational research related to womens reproductive health. The website for the US National Primate Research Centers (NPRCs) includes short discussions of the use of NHPs to study several different diseases ( This type of multi-center approach is often used for clinical studies by the medical community (Llovera and Liesz 2016 and references therein) and by the human genomics community for large-scale investigations of large human disease cohorts, using genome-wide association studies (Manolio 2013, 2017). [2], In 1890 George Angell and the Massachusetts Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (MSPCA) held an essay contest entitled "Why I Am Against Vivisection". The rigor with which experimental animals are described in publications also influences the reproducibility of animal-based translational studies. [7], Today, NEAVS continues its work through public outreach, education, legislation and policy change, supporting animal sanctuaries, and funding the development of alternatives to animals in research and science education.[9]. [7], In September 2017, Nathan Herschler, J.D. Alternatives like in vitro, computer simulations, cell and tissue samples, and mannequins are reducing the millions of sentient animals forced into painful experiments worldwide. A major goal is to develop better drug formulations or new approaches that can sustain viral remission, also called a functional cure without ART, or eradicate virus completely, called a sterilizing or classic cure (NIH Office of AIDS Research 2017 ). 2016, 2017; Cornish et al. This could facilitate, for example, identification of potentially deleterious gene variants present in the heterozygous state that can be developed into homozygous animal models of specific human diseases, particularly for Mendelian (single gene) diseases. A major challenge for the research community is to find means to communicate with the public and the US Congress and executive branch more clearly and decisively regarding the importance of the animal-based investigations that are the current basis of translational research. Highly visible organizations, such as the Humane Society of the United States ( and the New England Anti-Vivisection Society (, called here, for shorthand, animal rights organizations, actively oppose animal-based research. DM They discuss a number of studies in which the physiological features related to endocrine and metabolic studies in nonobese animals have been translated from original findings in rodents to the more relevant NHP model. Animal Research is Hazardous Waste examines the millions of animals bred, used, and disposed as contaminated or hazardous waste. Dudley 2016), Duchenne muscular dystrophy (Chen et al. The relatively large size of NHPs can also be important for sample collection, application of diagnostic assays, and imaging (see e.g., Havel et al. Over the past several years, a modest number of publications have provided high-quality reviews of the use of NHPs for translational research, including papers by Capitanio and Emborg (2008), Belmonte et al. C [43], On June 26, 2013, the National Institutes of Health (NIH) announced it would move forward with plans to retire almost 90% of its chimpanzees to sanctuary. BN NEAVS launched its national Project R&R: Release and Restitution for Chimpanzees in U.S. Laboratories campaign in 2003 to end the use of chimpanzees in invasive biomedical research and provide them permanent homes in sanctuary. 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